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Analyse the Important Factors of Either Deontology or Natural Moral Law

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a. Analyse the important factors of either Deontology or Natural moral law (18).

Deontology is first proposed by Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. He, like many other deontologists believe that certain actions are either right or wrong in themselves. This means the consequences do not matter and cannot be right or wrong. For example a wrong action that produces good consequences, for instance killing a murderer about to kill many people, is still considered to be a bad action and therefore should not be done. In addition a good action that produces bad consequences is still considered to be good, for example when the Red Cross gave bread to the concentration camp inmates which killed them. People today consider that this act was a good action and deontologist, like Kant, would agree. Kant lectured on mathematics and science in Königsberg before studying and then lecturing philosophy to his students.

Kant disagreed with utilitarian ethics because he believed a person being moral, and happiness should be separated in the matter of morals. He also argued that consequences should not be used as a moral guideline. Instead, Kant believed a moral person is one who performs their duty. Deontology originated form the Greek work Deon which means duty.

Kant looks at human beings and decides that most of them our rational. This enables humans to perform actions in a way that makes them acceptable for everyone. Kant believes a rational being can logically conclude something in a certain situation, and any other Rational human would come to the same conclusion. Reason states that there answers are the same.

To make deontology possible and available for everyone to live by, Kant devises a test to which all moral laws can be unconditional obeyed. This all comes out to be a person’s duty. When a person performs their duty, they are obeying the moral laws and therefor acting morally. Our duty is beyond us and our duty will tell us how to act and when to act. Will cannot be influenced by love, compassion or emotions.

Kant believes everyone should have a good will, which is achieved by performing their duty. Humans are morally required to avoid actions that are morally forbidden and it is our duty to perform good actions.

Duty is good in itself and a rational human being doesn’t have to do anything ese to be considered good. You should perform actions when you have the right intention however you don’t need to know that good consequences will occur. The right intention means the action is good.

Kant agrees with utilitarianism, that happiness is good, but the happiness occurs only when acting through good will. Kant claims that Duty is the highest good.

Kant gives a deontological example to help explain his ethics. The shop keeper scenario starts by imaging you are visiting a foreign country and are unfamiliar with the coins. You buy something at a shop but you cannot really understand the shopkeeper’s language so you give the shopkeeper a handful of coins. The shopkeeper helps himself to a few of them and hands you the purchase.

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